Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by the inability to sleep, with this being either unable to get to sleep or stay asleep. This results in a host of other issues such as daytime fatigue, irritability and even depression. Insomnia may occur independently of itself or may be due to underlying issues like stress, medications, drugs or other health issues.
Sleep apnea is a serious medical condition where breathing can be repeatedly interrupted while sleeping. This can result in daytime sleepiness and have an impact on an individual's physical and mental well-being. Heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, memory issues and motor vehicle accidents have all been associated with untreated sleep apnea syndrome.
As many as 25 million Americans may have significant sleep apnea syndrome. The vast majority go undiagnosed even though early detection could improve quality of life, prevent disease and potentially save lives.
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition that affects the body's natural sleep-wake cycle. People suffering from narcolepsy have excessive daytime fatigue and may fall asleep for short periods of time throughout the day. This proves to be a detriment to daily life as individuals may fall asleep at work, school or even behind the wheel of a vehicle or other machinery. In some cases individuals will temporarily lose muscle control during extreme emotional response, known as cataplexy.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) are a class of sleep problems that interfere with an individual's internal "sleep clocks". Unlike other sleep disorders that affect the quality of sleep, CRSDs cause individuals to be sleepy when they need to be awake and awake when they need to be asleep. A common type of CRSD is shift-work in which individuals work during the night and sleep during the day, throwing off the natural timing of sleep.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a neurological condition that causes a strange sensation in one's leg and in some cases a strong urge to move them. Symptoms can occur at any point throughout the day, but typically occur at night when one is at rest or relaxing. Often times movement of the limbs will alleviate the abnormal sensation.
REM Behavior Disorder
REM behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder that involves rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During normal REM stage sleep the body is paralyzed in order to prevent the acting out of dreams. In RBD this paralysis is lost and an individual may start to act out their dreams causing them to have violent movements during their sleep.